Cancer Treatment Results  Survival Rates Cancer Treatments / Therapy Results
Cancer
 
Prostate Cancer

The Cancer Monthly database currently has the results (survival, side effects, and more) for 40 recent therapies for prostate cancer including biological therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, gene therapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy and alternative therapy.

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Introduction

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men.  (The first is lung cancer.)  In 2004, approximately 230,000 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in the U.S., of whom 29,900 patients died.

The frequency of both benign and malignant changes in the prostate increases with age.  Autopsies of men in the eighth decade of life show malignant changes in over 70% of individuals. 

PSA was approved for early detection in 1994.  The normal range of PSA is 0 to 4 ng/mL.  PSA values may fluctuate for no apparent reason, thus, an isolated abnormal value should be confirmed before proceeding with further testing.  Rates of increase over .75 ng/mL per year suggest cancer. 

A diagnosis of cancer is established by a TRUS-guided needle biopsy.  MRI’s are often used to assess the extent of the cancer.  In addition, radionuclide bone scans may be used to evaluate spread to bony sites. 

Staging and Treatment

Localized prostate cancers are clinically confined to the prostate.  Patients with localized disease are managed by radical surgery, radiation therapy, or watchful waiting.  There is no clear evidence for the superiority of any one approach. 

TNM Stage
Description
Whitmore-
Jewett Stage
Description
T1a
Nonpalpable, with 5% or less of resected tissue with cancer
A1
Well differentiated tumor
T1b
Nonpalpable with >5% of resected tissue with cancer
A2
Involvement more diffuse
T1c
Nonpalpable, detected due to PSA
 
 
T2a
Palpable, half of one lobe or less
BIN
Palpable, < one lobe, surrounded by normal tissue
T2b
Palpable, > half of one lobe but not both lobes
B1
Palpable, < one lobes
T2c
Palpable, involves both lobes
B2
Palpable, one entire lobe or both lobes
T3a
Palpable, unilateral extracapsular extension
C1
Palpable, outside capsule, not into seminal vesicles
T3b
Palpable, bilateral extracapsular extension
 
Palpable, seminal vesicle involvement
T3c
Tumor invades seminal vesicle(s)
C2
Palpable, seminal vesicle involved
MI
Distant metastases
D
Metastatic disease

The more advanced the disease, the lower the probability of local control and the higher the probability of systemic relapse.  There are many prognostic models based on a combination of the initial T stage, Gleason score, and baseline PSA.

The Cancer Monthly database currently has the results (survival, side effects, etc.) for 40 recent therapies for prostate cancer including biological therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, gene therapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy and alternative therapy.

Sign Up and See the Results Right Now


Source: Howard I. Scher, Hyperplastic and malignant Diseases of the Prostate, in Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, pt. 5 § 81, at 543-549 (Dennis L. Kasper, M.D. et al., eds, 16th ed 2005).